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About

On June 27, 2016, the San Antonio Zoo announced that they had acquired a second female, Asian elephant for their exhibit to join Lucky and had formed a relationship with Feld Entertainment, owners of Ringling Brothers and Barnum and Bailey Circus. In August 2016, Karen was brought in as a third elephant.

Because of Nicole's extensive, abusive past in the Blue Unit of the Ringling tour and numerous medical concerns, we are cautious in our optimism that the two will in fact bond. Stay posted for updates as they come.

Brief History

ORIGIN: MYANMAR (BURMA)

BORN: 1976

CAPTIVE BRED: THIRD-GENERATION 

TIMBER CORPORATION (UTILIZED ELEPHANTS IN LOGGING ACTIVITIES)

TRANSFER: 

POSSIBLY RESIDED AT YANGON ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS IN MYANMAR FOR A TIME

IN MAY 1980 WAS ACQUIRED BY TIERHANDELSFIRMA RUHE OF WEST GERMANY, AN ANIMAL TRADING COMPANY

ON OR AROUND OCTOBER 15, 1980, FELD ENTERTAINMENT ACQUIRED A PERMIT FOR ACQUISITION

IN MAY 2016, RINGLING RETIRED THEIR ELEPHANTS TO THEIR CONSERVATION CENTER

CAME TO SAN ANTONIO: JUNE 27, 2016

Major Issues

Lack of Space

The elephant exhibit, recently expanded, still only sits on approximately 0.38 acres. There simply is not enough space for an elephant to properly exercise joints or maintain a healthy weight.

Medical Issues

Nicole came to the San Antonio Zoo already exhibiting a number of medical concerns, including severe foot-related problems and more. Read below for an extensive list of her medical history.

Lack of Shade

Despite the trees added outside of the perimeter of the exhibit and updated tarps, the zoo has done next to nothing to allow the elephants to escape from the heat of the summer Texas sun.

Compact Substrata

The exhibit sits over a layer of limestone, covered with sand and dirt that quickly becomes compact. This can cause immense stress to her joints and feet.

No Quarantine Period

The zoo has publicly admitted that there was no quarantine period upon Nicole's arrival because they had no facilities for it. Their own accrediting body recommends 30-90 days of quarantine.

Lack of Grass

As of late June 2016, the zoo has added a small area of grass around the pool, the first of its amount since 1962 or longer. However, the majority of the exhibit is still sand and dirt.

Psychological Issues

Likely due to Nicole's extensive history of abuse and stress, she has already been exhibiting stereotypic behavior since her arrival. This is likely due to a number of issues, not only relevant to her history but to the stress of a new environment and foreign companion.

Antiquated Exhibit

As of mid-2016, there have been minimal improvements to the exhibit. Overall, though, it is still antiquated, landlocked from any true upgrades needed.

Taken from Bonded Companions

Nicole had been traveling with the Blue Unit and the elephants who were a part of it since 1980. In particular, she may have been very bonded with elephant, Karen, for a majority of her life, and has now been stripped of that bond.

Karen and Nicole
As of August 29, 2016, Karen has been added to the San Antonio Zoo's collection. Please see her page regarding our concerns.

 

The 30+ year Bond

Karen was a member of the Blue Unit from 1969 until the Ringling Brothers retired their elephants to their Center for Conservation (CEC) in May 2016. She came to Ringling at less than a year old from a logging unit in Thailand where she had been wild-caught. Of the remaining elephants in the Blue Unit of recent years, Nicole and Karen were the only two elephants not captive born in the U.S.

In a case document, Karen was described by a former Blue Unit elephant caregiver as a "'killer elephant' who would have killed or seriously injured" a person. Nicole, in contrast, has allegedly been regarded as a "caring, gentle elephant...not really dominant." The two without question suffered alongside together for years, subjected to bull hook abuse, chronic foot problems, and more.

“These two elephants should no longer be performing under the standard of care and living conditions that have produced these unhealed injuries, and maintaining them under these current conditions will continue to cause suffering and cruelty.”

—Philip Ensley, D.V.M.

There is quite a deal of evidence proving the close bond shared between the two elephants, desite their alleged differing personalities. It has been cited that they were grouped together in pens, tethered next to each other so they could hold trunks and touch one another, and shared a railcar facing each other, among other indicators. In numerous media sources, the two are often seen explictly together or one aside the other.

So why were they stripped of that 30+ year bond?


Quick Facts

Name:

Named after Nicole Feld, daughter to Kenneth Feld, CEO of Feld Entertainment, owner of Ringling

Sometimes spelled "Nichole"

Circus Life: Performed with Ringling's Blue Unit from 1980-2016

Age Difference: 16 years younger than Lucky

Described as: 

Sweet-natured but clumsy

Low key and docile; "She fights sometimes with other elephants."

Markings: 

Left ear: Scars/depigmentation from performance head-dress

Right ear: Pecan sized lump of scar tissue at the upper attachment

Feet: Callouses/scars from chain wear

Left Front Knee: 9cm bump on lateral carpus

Tail: Crooked and bent

Abnormal gait:

Allegedly a conformational issue from birth

Infertile: Cannot breed and never calved

Tuberculosis Concerns: 

In 1978, 3 employees of the Blue Unit were diagnosed with active TB and all elephants were tested

Was on 3 drug therapy for treatment of possible TB

Treated with 2 drugs (For TB), either because of past clinical suspicions, positive DNA tests, or positive ELSIA tests (blood results)

Nicole and Susan were treated with medication that has been prescribed for the treatment of tuberculosis in defendant's elephants

Quotes

" An investigator sent a request to her superiors that Nicole be located and examined, and that her medical records be obtained immediately—to no avail.

" Handlers beat elephants named Sophie and Karen: Nicole was also severely beaten.

" Nicole was allegedly “tethered’ for 9-10 hours a day.

" Nicole would frequently miss her cues to climb atop a tub and place her feet on the elephant next to her; "I always rooted for her, 'Come on, Nicole, get up,'" he said. "But we left the show, brought the animals back to their area, and…we took the headpieces off, and as I was hanging them up, I heard the most horrible noise, just whack, whack, whack. I mean, really hard. It's hard to describe the noise. Like a baseball bat or something striking something not—not soft, and not hard…I turned around to look, and this guy was hitting her so fast and so hard [with the ankus], and sometimes he would take both hands and just really knock her, and he was just doing that. And I was, like, I couldn't believe it.

Medical History

Nicole was with the Ringling Brothers Circus from 1980-2016. There are little or no medical records available for review prior to 1994 and until otherwise noted, these records exist only up until her arrival at the San Antonio Zoo in June 2016.

  • Lymphatic infection that caused edema of forelimbs
  • Chronic issues with bleeding, cracked, abscessed nails
  • Chronic issues with infected nail beds
  • Scraped nose in stock car
  • History of chronic bull hook abuse
  • Chronic chain wear
  • Chronic swollen legs
  • Placed on drug therapy used for tuberculosis several times
  • Issues with inter-digital swelling of toes
  • Chronic stiff limbs
  • Lameness
  • Abrasions
  • Bed sore lesions
  • Lesions
  • Elbow and knee callouses
  • Skin loss
  • External infections
  • Bumps on limbs
  • Trauma to knee
  • Muscle pain
  • 1-4 day gaps of medical treatment, despite federal law

Medical Report from Plaintiff

Extends from 1994-2007

PDF Version

Nicole's Report can be found on pages 14-29

Relevant Text from Medical Report

Medical Record Entries:

11/4/94: Polk Unit: 150 ml ps for 3 weeks-lymphatic infection causing edema of forelimbs. FELD 0026414 

3/20/98: Polk Unit: Slight bleeding LF nail, Betadine & Triple purple spray x 2 months. FELD 0026414 

8/5/98: Blue Unit: Daily Animal Records: Nicole scraped nose in stock car. FEl 36250 

Date Unknown: Blue Show: Daily Animal Records: Blood in Nicole's stool probably from straining. FEl 36255 

6/16/99: Blue Unit: Daily Animal Records: Nicole: Front foot soaked. FEl 22855 

6/17/99: Blue Unit: Daily Animal Records: Nicole front foot soaked. Dr. Lindsay was here to check up on Nicole, Mysore, Lecheme, and Minas' feet. He took blood sample from Nicole. FEl 22856 

6/17/99: Both front legs swollen, no apparent distress or systemic signs.
Polyflex 1M x 5 days. WBC 14,000, high end of normal. All else ok, Chemistry. FELD 0026415 

6/18/99: Blue Unit: Daily Animal Records: Front foot soaked. Dr. Lindsay took Nicole out of the show until further notice. FE122857 

6/19/99: Blue Unit: Daily Animal Records: Front foot soaked. "Nicole is receiving injections of..." FEl 22858 

6/23/99: Memo: Subject: RE: Blue Unit Report: From: Kenneth Feld: "What's wrong with Nicole? Has the vet been notified?" Memo: From William Lindsay, 6/23/99: Mr. Feld: "I saw Nicole last week at College Station. Both front feet have accumulation of fluid extending up to her elbows. Although her blood work is all within normal limits, the total white blood count is at the high end of normal, and I put her on injectable antibiotics, and, thus I suggested no performances. I will see her Monday night in Buffalo." FEI20812 

6/23/99: Start on Naxcel 1M SID x 4 days, Banamine x 2 days. FELD 0026415 

6/24/99: Blue Unit: Daily Animal Records: Nicole received an injection of Naxcel. She is still out of show. Her legs are still swollen. FEI 22864

6/25/99: Blue Unit: Daily Animal Records: Nicole received an injection of Naxcel. She is still out of show. Her legs are still swollen. FEI 22865

6/25-26/99: Lasix 1M SID. FELD 0026415 

6/26/99: Blue Unit: Daily Animal Records: Nicole received her medication. Her legs are still swollen. FEI 22866

6/27/99: Blue Unit: Daily Animal Records: Nicole received her medication. Load out-4.5 mile walk. FEI 22867

7/8/99: Front legs remain swollen. Naquazone BID x 3 days no improvement. FELD 0026415 

7/12/99: Transferred from Blue Unit to CEC. FELD 0026415 Load out 2.3 mile walk FEI22821 

7/14/99: Nicole has joined CEC because of edema in both front legs. FI! 32599 

7/15/99: CEC: Daily Animal Records: Nichole- legs swollen, but ED-BAR FEI 22981 

7/16/99: CEC: Daily Animal Records: Nichole-legs swollen, but ED-BAR FEI22982 

7/17/99: CEC: Daily Animal Records: Nichole-legs swollen but ED-BAR FEI 22983 

7/18/99: CEC: Daily Animal Records: Nichole-legs more swollen, some swelling under belly. FEI22984 

7/19/99: CEC: Daily Animal Records: Nichole- legs more swollen, some swelling under belly. FEI 22985 

7/20/99: CEC: Daily Animal Records: Nichole-legs more swollen, some swelling under belly. ED-BAR FEI 22986 

7/20/99: TB Treatment Nichole FELD 0030198

7/20/99: Started Isoniazid, Last day of treatment 7/31/00 

7/26/99: Started PZA, Last day of treatment 7/31/00 

7/30/99: Started Rifampin, Last day of treatment 7/31/00 

7/21/99: CEC: Daily Animal Records: Nichole- legs swollen, swelling under belly. ED- BAR FEI 22987 

7/21/99: Both front legs are swollen with pitting edema extending from the chest to the feet. Moderate amount of edema is also located on the underside of the chest. The RF #3 has a severe NBA that involves the whole nail bed. The LF #4/5 has an inter-digital swelling. Rx Nuflor IM EOD x 5 doses. Suspect recurrence of lymphangitis, possible bacterial origin. Start aggressive foot/nail care. Start mild exercise (walking). Monitor. FELD 0026415 

7/22/99: CEC: Daily Animal Records: Nichole- legs swollen, swelling under belly. ED- BAR FEI 22988 

7/23/99: CEC: Animal Records: Nichole-legs swollen, swelling under belly, ED-BAR FEI22989 

7/23/99: Nichole: CEC TB Status-S, Scott's ELISA Results-P, Ramiro's ELISA RESULTS-P FELD 0008094 

7/24/99: CEC: Daily Animal Records: Nichole-legs swollen, swelling under belly, ED- BAR FEI 22990 

7/25/99: CEC: Daily Animal Records: Nichole-legs swollen, swelling under belly, ED- BAR FEI 22991 

7/26/99: CEC: Daily Animal Record: Nichole- legs swollen, swelling under belly, ED- BAR FEI 22992 

7/27/99: CEC: Daily Animal Records: Nichole-legs swollen, swelling under belly. FEI 22993 

7/28/99: CEC: Daily Animal Records: Nichole- legs swollen, swelling under belly. FEI 22994 

7/29/99: Examine on site, legs still swollen. FELD 0026415 

7/29/99: CEC: Daily Animal Records: Memo From: William Lindsay To: Ramiro Isaza, Subject: CEC med records: Nichole- No change from last week- fore limb swelling and ventral edema and digit lesions, both front, persist. Bright, alert and eating. 5 doses of Nuflor have been completed; now on 3 drug therapy for treatment of possible Tb. Blood levels to National Jewish soon. FEI 31085 

7/31/99: CEC: Daily Animal Records: Nichole- legs swollen, swelling under belly, FEl 22997 

8/01/99: CEC: Daily Animal Record: Nichole-legs swollen, swelling under belly, FEI 22928 

8/02/99: CEC: Daily Animal Records: Nichole- legs swollen, swelling under belly, FEI 22929 

8/03/99: CEC: Daily Animal Records: Nichole- legs swollen, swelling under belly, FEI 22930

8/04/99: CEC: Daily Animal Report: Nichole-legs swollen, swelling under belly, FEI 22931 

8/05/99: CEC: Daily Animal Records: Nichole- legs swollen, swelling under belly, FEI 22932 

8/06/99: CEC: Daily Animal Records: Nichole-legs swollen, swelling under belly, FEI 22933 

8/07/99: CEC: Daily Animal Records: Nichole-legs swollen, swelling under belly, FEI 22934 

8/08/99: CEC: Daily Animal Records: Nichole- legs swollen, swelling under belly, FEI 22935 

8/09/99: CEC: Daily Animal Records: Nichole- legs swollen, swelling under belly, FEI 22936 

8/10/99: CEC: Daily Animal Records: Nichole- legs swollen, swelling under belly, FEI 22937 

8111/99: CEC: Daily Animal Records: Nichole- legs swollen, swelling under belly, FEi 22938 

812/99: CEC: Daily Animal Records: Nichole-legs swollen, swelling under belly, FEI 22939 

8/13/99: CEC: Daily Animal records: Nichole- legs swollen, swelling under belly, FEI 22940 

9/08/99: Memo From: William Lindsay, To: Richard Froemming, Subject Tuberculosis Treatment Update- "Alana, Romeo, Juliette, Kelly and Nichole are also being treated, with 2 drugs, either because of past clinical suspicions, positive DNA tests, or positive ELISA tests (blood results)." FEI 21511 

10/18/99: CEC: Daily Animal Records: Nichole- swelling on belly gone. FEI 23801 

10/27/99: Examine on site. Some improvement in limb edema. FELD 0026415 

2/1/00: Nichole: CEC TB Status-S, Scott's ELISA Results-P, Ramiro's ELISA RESULTS-P FELD 0008094 

7/31/00: CEC: Daily Animal Records: Nichole, last day of treatment. FEI 36128 

8/6/00: CEC: Daily Animal Records: Nicole, Right front foot trimmed and filed loose skin trimmed off right front pad stiff in the afternoon. FEI 36122 

8/7/00: CEC: Daily Animal Records: Nichole, Showing no signs of stiffness. FEI 36121 

6/2/01: CEC: Daily Animal Records: Nichole, abscess on toe; start daily trimming and treatment. FEI 25326 

12/02/01: CEC: Daily Animal Records: Nichole transferred to Tampa Winter Quarters FEI 25261 

2/28/02: Hampton, VA Blue Unit: History recheck LF lameness. Trainers report no change. Stiffness still noted in the LF carpus. Healing NBA FELD 0021812 

3/27/02: NYC, NY Blue Unit: Recheck old NBA RF #4. RF #4 has a healing NBA. Currently being treated. FELD 0021827 

8/10/02: San Diego, CA Blue Unit: LF #4/5 mild inter-digital swelling. RF#2 healed NBA. RF #5 deep hole under nail. Small healing abrasion on left axillary area. Normal exam. FELD 0021898 

11/26/02: Chicago, IL Blue Unit: Mild, chronic, bed sore lesions on both sides of face and left hip. Small raised lesion on the lateral aspect of the LF carpus. FELD 0021836 

11/5/03: Pittsburgh, PA Blue Unit: Mild. Small, raised lesion on the lateral aspect of LF carpus. All feet/nails normal. Normal examination. FEI 42625 

6/16 to 6/19/04: Wichita falls, TX Blue Unit: History: Significantly lame over one week LF. Has been on Ibuprofen BID for a week. Feet look good. Elephant was extremely stiff legged. Suspect a problem is in carpus primarily and in elbow secondarily. Seems to advance shoulder satisfactorily. No muscle atrophy noted. Diagnosis: Open. Follow up: Conversation with Dr. Lindsay: He recommended initiating Banamine 1M at 30cc SID, and Adequan 1M, at 35cc every four days. Discussed this with Sonny. Troy not available. FELD 0008344 

6/26/05: Winter Quarters: Stiff right front. No treatment. FEI8377 

8/4/05: Winter Quarters: Stiff right front. Treatment Ibuprofen. BID FEI 8381 

8/5/05: Winter Quarters: Same treatment. Ibuprofen BID. FEI 8381 

8/6/05: Winter Quarters: Same treatment. Ibuprofen BID. FEI 8381 

8/7/05: Winter Quarters: Same treatment. Ibuprofen BID. FEl 8381 

1/1/06: Winter Quarters: Tampa. Leave Winter Quarters, Tampa. FEl 8399 

2/3/06: Nicole elephant small abscess left front. Flush water and Gentamicin - 2 x. FEI 8402 

2/4/06: Nicole elephant flush abscess water and Gentamicin -1 x. FEI 8402 

2/5/06: Greensboro, NC: Nicole elephant Hush abscess 2 x- FEI 8403 

2/7/06: Letter to Dr. Ellen Wiedner from Dr. William Lindsay: Nichole-There is an area of skin loss and superficial infection on her lower left forearm. I suggested keeping the area clean and flushing with gentocin solution daily using an infusion tip. FEI l1093 

2/8/06: Nicole elephant flush abscess water and Gentamicin. FEI 8403 

2/11/06: Nicole elephant flush abscess water and Gentamicin 2x. FEI 8403 

2/12/06: Richmond, VA: Nicole elephant flush abscess with water and Gentamicin Ix. FEl 8404 

2/16/06: Nicole elephant flush open abscess water and Gentamicin 1x. FEI 8404 

2/17/06: Memo From: Knudsen, Jessica, To: Fahrenbruck, Deborah; Weidner, Ellen. Subject: Med Info. On Tuesday Feb.l4th the scar on Nichole's leg finally opened. It is being thoroughly cleansed with water every day. Dr. Lindsay checked her when he visited the unit in Greenville. FEI 11179 

2/20/06: Nicole elephant flush open abscess water- 2x. FEl 8405

2/23/06: Nicole elephant flush open abscess water 2x. Ultrasound leg O.K. FEl8405 2/24/06: Nicole elephant flush open abscess water and Gentamicin- 2x. FEI 8405

2/25/06: Nicole elephant flush open abscess water and Gentamicin Ix FEI 8406 2/26/06: Nicole elephant flush open abscess water FEI 8406

2/28/06: Nicole elephant flush open abscess water + Gentamicin FEI 8406

3/2/06: Nicole elephant flush open abscess water + Gentamicin FEI 8406

3/3/06: Nicole elephant flush open abscess water + Gentamicin FEl 8406

3/4/06: Nicole elephant flush open abscess with water and Gentamicin I x FEl 8407 3/5/06: Nicole elephant flush open abscess water - Ix FEI 8407

3/10/06: Nicole elephant flush open abscess with water - Ix FEl8407

3/11/06: Nicole elephant flush open abscess with water and Gentamicin- Ix FEI 8408 3/12/06: Nicole elephant flush open abscess with water and Gentamicin- Ix FEI 8408 

3/16/06: Nicole elephant flush open abscess water and Gentamicin- Ix FEI 8408 3/17/06: Nicole elephant flush open abscess water and Gentamicin Ix FEI8408 3/19/06: New York City, NY: Nicole elephant flush open abscess water and Gentamicin 1x FEI8409 

3/20-23/06: NYC, NY Blue Unit: Nichole elephant: Bump on lateral surface of LF. Slowly healing, still some drainage. Elephant BAR, not lame. Plan: Observe and keep clean. FEI 11094 

3/23/06: Nicole elephant flush open abscess water -2x FEI 8409 

3/24/06: Nicole elephant flush out open abscess water -2x FEI8409 

3/25/06: Nicole elephant flush out open abscess water Ix FEI8409 

3/27/06: Nicole elephant flush open abscess water 2x and Gentamicin Ix FEI 8409 3/28/06: Nicole elephant flush open abscess water - 2x FEI 8410

3/29/06: Nicole elephant flush open abscess water -1x FEI 8410

3/30/06: Nicole elephant flush open abscess water- 1x FEI 8410 

3/31/06: Nicole elephant flush open abscess water - 1x FEI 8410

4/1/06: Nicole elephant flush open abscess water + Gentamicin -lx- FEI 8410 4/2/06: Nicole elephant flush open abscess water - 1x FEI 8401

4/3/06: Nicole elephant flush open abscess water- 1x FEI 8410

4/4/06: Nicole elephant flush open abscess water -1x FEI 8411

4/6/06: Nicole elephant flush open abscess water- 1x + Gentamicin 1x FEI 8411 4/7/06: Nicole elephant flush open abscess water- 1x FEI 8411

4/8/06: Nicole elephant flush open abscess water Gentamicin 1x FEI 8411 

4/9/06: Nicole elephant flush open abscess water- Gentamicin 1x FEI 8411 

4/10/06: Nicole elephant flush open abscess water- FEI 8412

4/11/06: Nicole elephant flush open abscess water- FEO 8412

4/13/06: Nicole elephant flush open abscess water- Gentamicin FEI 8412 

4/14/06: Nicole elephant flush open abscess water- FEI 8412

4/15/06: Nicole elephant flush open abscess water- Gentamicin FEI 8412 

4/16/06: Nicole elephant flush open abscess water- Gentamicin FBI 8413 

4/21/06: Nicole elephant flush open abscess water- FEI 8413

4/22/06: Nicole elephant flush open abscess water- FEI 8413

4/23/06: Nicole elephant flush open abscess water- FEI 8414

4/25/06: Nicole elephant flush open abscess water- FEI 8414

4/26/06: Nicole elephant flush open abscess water- FEI 8414

4/27/06- Nicole elephant flush open abscess water- FEI 8414

4/27/06: Nicole elephant flush open abscess water- FEI 8414

4/27/06: Nicole elephant flush open abscess water- FEI 8414

4/28/06: Nicole elephant flush open abscess water- FEI 8414 

4/29/06: Nicole elephant flush open abscess water FEI8414 

5/13-5/14/06: Hartford, CT Blue Unit: Nichole elephant. BAR, 3cm raised bumps laterally on RF and LF, ongoing. Elephant not lame. Not hot or painful. Keepers note intermittent draining, none during this visit. Plan: Continue to keep clean. FEI 16891 

6/9/06:BlueUnit: LamenessRH."Troy called me to tell me that Nichole was stiff on her right hind leg. I authorized him to administer 20cc banamine 1M tonight and asked him to call me again in the morning. Troy says she is BAR, that her feet/nails appear solid, and that she has not experienced any sort of trauma." FEI 21810 

6/10/06: Blue Unit: Lameness RH. "Troy called this morning to report that Nichole was still stiff on her RH but seems to improve somewhat with movement. I authorized him to administer 30cc banamine 1M this morning and to call me later today with updates. He told me there are no obvious lesions to explain the lameness. I told Troy I will be in Las Vegas to examine the elephant personally. Phone conversations with Gary Jacobson; Bill Lindsay - informed Troy called back and said that Nichole is very stiff, and the banamine wasn't doing much. I asked him to ask Anita Santiago to call in the on call vet. The vet told me that this looks like an upward patellar fixation in ahorse. He didn't think it was particularly painful. He described it as a 'mechanical not a supporting limb lameness.' " FEI 21808 

6/11/06: Blue Unit: Lameness RH. Nichole is out of the show. FEI 21808 

6/12/06: Blue Unit: Elephant traveling well. Still stiff but seems comfortable. Lameness RH. FEI 21807 

6/13/06: Blue Unit: Lameness RH. Still not bending knee, RH. No heat, redness, or swelling. Can bear weight; not fracture lame. Assess: Trauma of unknown origin. Cold hose leg hourly for 5-10 minutes. Rest elephant from walking for 24 hours. Adequan SID IM. FEI 21807 

6/14/06: Blue Unit: History of lameness RH. Slight ability to bend knee. Still no heat, redness, or swelling. Swings leg in arc when walks, but very interested in moving around to obtain food, interact with peers. Slight improvement. Today, walk slowly 5 to 10 min. Adequan SID IM. FEI 21806 

6/15/06: Blue Unit: Lameness RH. History of lameness RH. Unchanged from yesterday. Continue as yesterday, plus add Ibuprofen BIB PO for the first day, than SID. Updated on Nicole. Discussed ability to slightly bend leg which I take as evidence of healing. FEI 21805 

6/20/06: Blue Unit: Daily Animal Records: Front foot soaked. "Nicole received her injection." 1 show day-load out. FEI 22859 

6/21/06: Blue Unit Daily Animal Records: "Nicole received injection." Travel day. FEI 22860 

6/22/06: Blue Show: Daily Animal Records: "Nicole received her injection." Travel day. FEI 22861 

6/27/06: Muscle pain. Stiff leg-abduction right front leg: limited flexibility of knee, slight swelling. FEI 41390 

7/11/06: Nichole elephant has been approved by me to return to performing. Ellen Wiedner, VMD FEI41391 

8/24/06: Memo From: Wiedner, Ellen, To: Thomas, Albert; Aria, Janice; Coleman, Carrie; Andacht, Jim; Ramos, Jennifer; Fahrenbruck, Deborah; Griggs, Jon; Isaza, Ramiro; Jacobson, Gary; Jones, Kayleen; Lindsay, William; Locker, Harry; Polke, David; Quevedo, Angelina; Read, Bruce; Santiago, Anita; Schmitt, Dennis; Strauss, Julie; Stuart, Mike; Williams, Trudy; Frizzell, Mickie. Subject: Murray Fowler's Visits to the Blue Show, Veterinary Report from Dr. Murray Fowler: 11 July 2006 "2. Jewel (elephant) has an ongoing stiffness on the right fore limb. When walked off the train she was slightly stiff, but didn't change any during the walk in, USDA officials were present with instruction to videotape Jewel's movement. 3. Nicole(elephant) had traumatized her stifle previously, but she was walking okay when I saw her. 

16 July 2006 1. Jewel (elephant) no change. REDACTED FEI 42373 

10/18/06: Letter from Dr. Lindsay to Dr. Wiedner, dated 10/26/06- "I traveled to Cleveland, Ohio on October 18, 2006. "I observed the animal walk and noted that Nichole had a stiff front leg that improved with exercise." REDACTED FEI 44334 

12/14/06: Orlando, FL Blue Unit: "Chronic raised dermal mass on left lateral carpus, the center is draining a small amount of fluid." FEI 4334 

1/11/07: Miami, FL Blue Unit: Vertical crack LF/D3, vertical crack LH/D2, vertical crack RH/D3, approx 9cm bump on lateral carpus LF. Normal for this elephant. FEI 44482 

COPIES OF UNDATED PHOTOGRAPHS: Foot toe cracks and toe nail abscess: FEI 7934, FEI 7969, FEI 8001, FEI 8027, FEI 8043, FEI 8044, FEI 8052, FEI 8053, FEI 8063, FE1 8064, FEI 8065, FEI 8077, FEI 8078, FEI 8079, FEI 8083, FEI 8084, FEI 8091, FEI 8092, FEI 8095, FEI 8112, FEI 8013, FEI 8126, FEI 8127, FEI 8128, FEI 8129, FEI 8130, FEI 8131, FEI 8157, FEI 8158, FEI 8159, FEI 8160, FEI 8196, FEI 8196, FEI 8197, FEI 8246, FEI 8271, FEI 8272, FEI 8290, FEI 8297 

Nicole/Nichole-Summary of medical and/or behavioral events: 

(Little or no medical records available prior to 1989)

1994-3 weeks-lymphatic infection causing edema of forelimbs. 

1998-Slight bleeding LF nail. 

- Scraped nose in stock car.
- Per Tom Rider response to an interrogatory: "Randy Peterson... come out and started beating the elephant Nicole. It happened      another time in Winter Quarters, he beat Nicole..."
- Per Tom Rider deposition: “Again the elephants were hooked as they came off the train, and as they walked down and put in tents; Randy Peterson hit the elephant Nicole on the head with a bull hook."
- Per Tom Rider deposition: "Handlers beat elephants named Sophie and Karen; and Nicole was also severely beaten."

1999-Both front legs swollen; out of show until further notice; transferred to CEC. 

- TB treatment; on 3 drug therapy for treatment of possible TB.
- RF #3 has a severe NBA that involves the whole nail bed. abscess
- LF #4/5 has an inter-digital swelling.
- Alana, Romeo, Juliette, Kelly and Nichole are also being treated with 2 drugs (For TB), either because of past clinical suspicions, positive DNA tests, or positive ELSIA test. 

2000-Right front foot trimmed and filed loose skin trimmed off right front pad stiff in the afternoon. 

2001 Abscess on toe; start daily trimming and treatment.

2002-History: Recheck left front lameness; stiffness still noted in LF carpus; healing NBA. 

- Recheck old NBA RF #4; RF #4 has healing NBA.
- LF #4/5 mild inter-digital swelling; RF #2 healed NBA; RF #5 deep hole under nail; small healing abrasion on left axillary area.                - Mild chronic bed sore lesions on both sides of face and left hip; small raised lesion on lateral aspect of the LF carpus. 

2004-Significantly lame over one week LF; elephant was extremely stiff legged.

2005-Stiff right front.

2006-Small abscess left front. 

- Area of skin loss and superficial infection on her lower left forearm.
- Bump on lateral surface ofLF; slowly healing, still some drainage.
- 3 cm raised bumps laterally on RF and LF, ongoing, intermittent draining.
- Stiff on her right hind leg; lameness right hind, out of show.
- Still not bending knee, RH; trauma of unknown origin.
- Swings leg in arc when walks.
- Muscle pain; stiff leg-abduction right front leg: limited flexibility of knee, slight swelling.
- Stiff front leg that improved with exercise. 

2007-Vertical crack LF/D3; vertical crack LH/D2; vertical crack RH/D3; approx 9 cm bump on lateral carpus LF.

Other Notes in Document:

"Dr. Lindsay and I examined Nicole. I saw nothing except an approximately pecan sized lump of what appeared to be healed scar tissue at the upper attachment of her right ear." "I examined Susan, with Dr. Lindsay. She had a variety of apparently recent, healing, scratches and scrapes on her head and right side (see photos). Dr. Lindsay said he saw Susan on December 29 and 30, 1998 and they were not there. He thought they might be from the transport vehicle." 

Nicole- Age 32 yrs This Asian elephant has been with the Circus since 1980. There are little or no medical records available for review prior to 1994. In 1999 Nicole was treated for possible tuberculosis. She has had toe nail cracks, chronic severe nail bed abscesses, and episodes of interdigital swelling, and a history of left front leg lameness, and noted to be extremely stiff legged. She has had stiffness in her right hind leg causing her to go out of the show, thought to be caused from trauma of unknown origin, resulting in swinging her leg in an arc when she walks. Her right front leg has been stiff. She has had chronic bedsore lesions on both sides of her face and left hip. Tom Rider's response to an interrogatory indicates that Nicole was beaten severely in 1998 and hit with a bull hook in the same year. More recently she has had vertical toe nail cracks. During the Auburn Hills, Michigan site inspection, the rear soles of Nicole's feet revealed uneven wear. She had elbow and knee callosities similar to Karen. Nicole had a vertical toe nail crack on the left front foot. During the evening period of observation Nicole was viewed standing while chained on a wooden pallet.

In January, 2007 six of seven Asian elephants on the Blue Unit in Miami, Florida, Bonnie, Sara, Kelly Ann, Juliette, Karen, and Nicole, had toe nail cracks (FEl 44481-44482). 

While this case focuses upon the use of bullhooks and other instruments on Asian elephants, and the confinement and chaining of the elephants for long periods of time, it is relevant to recognize that the medical records of the seven Asian elephants specific to this case, reveal that Nicole and Susan were treated with medication that has been prescribed for the treatment of tuberculosis in defendant's elephants.